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母亲节 mother’s Day  

2009-05-07 05:16:44|  分类: 生活日记 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Mother's Day

The modern Mother's Day holiday was created by Anna Jarvis as a day for each family to honor its mother,[1] and it's now celebrated on various days in many places around the world. It complements Father's Day, the celebration honoring fathers.

This holiday is relatively modern, being created at the start of the 20th century, and should not be confused with the early pagan and Christian traditions honoring mothers, or with the 16th century celebration of Mothering Sunday, which is also known as Mother's Day in the UK.

In most countries the Mother's Day celebration is a recent holiday derived from the original US celebration. Exceptions are, for example, the Mothering Sunday holiday in the UK.

Historical antecedents

Different countries celebrate Mother's Day on various days of the year because the day has a number of different origins.[citation needed]

One school of thought[who?] claims this day emerged from a custom of mother worship in ancient Greece, which kept a festival to Cybele, a great mother of Greek gods. This festival was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and eventually in Rome itself from the Ides of March (15 March) to 18 March.

The ancient Romans also had another holiday, Matronalia, that was dedicated to Juno, though mothers were usually given gifts on this day.

In addition to Mother's Day, International Women's Day is celebrated in many countries on March 8.

Anna Jarvis trademarked the phrases "second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day International Association. [1][2]

"She was specific about the location of the apostrophe; it was to be a singular possessive, for each family to honour their mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world."[1]

This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in the law making official the holiday in the U.S., by the U.S. Congress on bills,[3][4] and by other U.S. presidents on their declarations.[5]

Common usage in English language also dictates that the ostensibly singular possessive "Mother's Day" is the preferred spelling.

trends in Google searches for the term "mother's day" shows two primary results, the smaller one on the fourth Sunday in Lent, from the British tradition of Mothering Sunday (it is also called ladies day and women's day), and the larger one on the second Sunday in May.[6]

The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture (compare the celebrations of Diwali in the UK and the United States).

Note: Countries that celebrate International Women's Day are marked with a cross '?'.

 

Gregorian calendar

 

Occurrence

Dates

Country

 

Second Sunday of February

2-8-2009;2-14- 2010

Norway?

 

February 2

 

Greece

 

Shevat 30

(Falls anywhere between January 30 and March 1)

 

Israel

 

March 3

 

Georgia

 

March 8

 

Afghanistan

Albania?

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Belarus?

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria?

Laos

Macedonia?

Moldova

Montenegro

Romania

Russia?*

Serbia

Ukraine?

 

Fourth Sunday in Lent

3-22-2009

3-14-2010

Ireland

Nigeria

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

March 21

(vernal Equinox)

 

Bahrain

Egypt

Iraq

Jordan

Kuwait

Libya

Lebanon

Oman

Palestinian Territories

Saudi Arabia

Sudan

Somalia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Yemen (All Arab countries in general)

 

March 25

 

Slovenia

 

 

 

 

 

April 7

 

Armenia

 

 

 

 

 

April 24 +/- 5 days Baisakh Amavasya (Mata Tirtha Aunsi)

 

Nepal

 

 

 

 

 

First Sunday in May

5-3-2009

5-2-2010

Hungary?

Lithuania

Mozambique

Portugal

Spain

 

 

 

 

May 8

 

Albania (Parents' Day)

South Korea (Parents' Day)

 

 

 

 

 

May 10

 

El Salvador

Guatemala

Mexico

 

 

 

 

Second Sunday of May

5-10-2009

5-9-2010

Anguilla

Aruba

Australia

Austria

Bahamas

Bangladesh

Barbados

Belgium

Belize

Bermuda

Bonaire

Brazil

Brunei

Bulgaria

Canada

Chile

Colombia

Croatia

Cuba [7]

Curaçao

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Dominica

Ecuador

Estonia

Ethiopia

Finland

Germany

Ghana

Greece

Grenada

Honduras

Hong Kong

Iceland

India

Italy?

Jamaica

Japan

Latvia*

Liechtenstein*

Malaysia

Malta

Myanmar

Netherlands

New Zealand

Pakistan

Papua New Guinea

Peru [8]

People's Republic of China[9]

Philippines

Puerto Rico

Republic of China (Taiwan)

Slovakia

South Africa

Sri Lanka

St. Kitts & Nevis

St. Lucia

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Sint Maarten

Singapore

Suriname

Switzerland

Trinidad and Tobago

Turkey

Ukraine

United States

Uruguay

Venezuela

Zambia

Zimbabwe

 

 

 

 

 

May 15

 

Paraguay

 

 

 

 

 

May 26

 

Poland "Dzień Matki"

 

 

 

 

 

May 27

 

Bolivia

 

 

 

 

 

Last Sunday of May

5-31-2009

5-30-2010

Algeria

Dominican Republic

France (First Sunday of June if Pentecost occurs on this day)

French Antilles (First Sunday of June if Pentecost occurs on this day)

Haiti [10]

Mauritius

Morocco

Sweden?

Tunisia

 

 

May 30

 

Nicaragua

 

 

 

 

 

June 1

 

Mongolia? (The Mothers and Children's Day.)

 

 

 

 

 

Second Sunday of June

6-14-2009

6-13-2010

Luxembourg

 

 

 

 

 

Last Sunday of June

6-28-2009

6-27-2010

Kenya

 

 

 

 

 

August 12

 

Thailand (the birthday of Queen Sirikit)

 

 

 

 

 

August 15 (Assumption Day)

 

Antwerp (Belgium)

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

Second Monday of October

10-12-2009

10-11-2010

Malawi

 

 

 

 

 

October 14

 

Belarus

 

 

 

 

 

Third Sunday of October

10-18-2009

10- 17-2010

Argentina (Día de la Madre)

 

 

 

 

 

Last Sunday of November

11-29-2009

11- 28-2010

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

December 8

 

Panama

 

 

 

 

 

December 22

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

Islamic calendar

 

 

 

 

 

Occurrence

Dates

Country

 

 

 

 

 

20 Jumada al-thani[n 1]

June 23, 2008

Iran [11]

 

 

 

 

 

Shōwa period as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito). Nowadays it is a marketed holiday, and people typically give flowers such as carnations and roses as gifts.

[12] In 1997 it was set as the day to help poor mothers, especially to remind people of the poor mothers on rural areas such as China's west.[12] In the People's Daily, the Communist Party of China's journal, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China take the holiday with no hesitance because it goes in line with the country's traditional ethics -- respect to the elderly and filial piety to parents."[12]

In recent years Communist Party of China's member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ, and formed a Non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics.[13][14] They also ask to replace the Western gift of carnations with lilies, which, on ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home.[14] It remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.

Eastern Orthodox feast day of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. Since the Theotokos (The Mother of God) appears prominently in this feast as the one who brought Christ to the Temple at Jerusalem, this feast is associated with mothers.[citation needed]

Jumada al-thani, the birthday anniversary of Fatima, Muhammad's daughter. [11] It was changed after the Iranian revolution, the reason having been theorized as trying to undercut feminist movements and promoting role models for the traditional model of family. [15][16] It was previously 25 Azar on Iranian calendar during the Shah era[citation needed]

United Kingdom and Ireland, Mothering Sunday falls on the fourth Sunday of Lent, exactly three weeks before Easter Sunday (March 22 in 2009). It is believed to have originated from the 16th century Christian practice of visiting one's mother's church annually, which meant that most mothers would be reunited with their children on this day. Most historians believe that young apprentices and young women in servitude were released by their masters that weekend in order to visit their families.[17] As a result of secularization, it is now principally used to show appreciation to one's mother, although it is still recognized in the historical sense by some churches, with attention paid to Mary the mother of Jesus Christ as well as the traditional concept 'Mother Church'.

Mothering Sunday can fall at the earliest on 1 March (in years when Easter Day falls on 22 March) and at the latest on 4 April (when Easter Day falls on 25 April).

Mother's Day (North America)

The United States and Canada celebrate Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May.

lunar calendar. People with living mothers would be thankful, while people with dead mothers would pray for their souls.

[1]

Later commercial and other exploitations of the use of Mother's Day infuriated Anna and she made her criticisms explicitly known throughout her time.[18][1] She criticized the practice of purchasing greeting cards, which she saw as a sign of being too lazy to write a personal letter. She was arrested in 1948 for disturbing the peace while protesting against the commercialization of Mother's Day, and she finally said that she "wished she would have never started the day because it became so out of control ...".[18]

Mother's Day continues to this day to be one of the most commercially-successful U.S. occasions. According to the National Restaurant Association, Mother's Day is now the most popular day of the year to dine out at a restaurant in the United States.

For example, according to IBISWorld, a publisher of business research, Americans will spend approximately $2.6 billion on flowers, $1.53 billion on pampering gifts—like spa treatments—and another $68 million on greeting cards.[19]

Mother's Day will generate about 7.8% of the U.S. jewelry industry's annual revenue in 2008, with custom gifts like mother's rings.[20]

 

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